Precision and personalized medicine
The terms precision medicine and personalized medicine are sometimes used interchangeably with one another. These words could be new to many but actually, it is not new to the scientists as it works like blood typing that is used for more than 100 years to guide blood transfusion. As we know that blood transfusion cannot be done without matching the blood type of the donor and the recipient, similarly one type of drug, in the same disease cannot be prescribed to individuals belongs to different races or having the different genetic background as per the latest concept of treatment.
Advancement in human genome sequencing, Proteomics and metabolomics.
The recent advancement in the fields of human genome sequencing, proteomics and metabolomics have made it possible to treat and prevent diseases on the basis of variability in genes of human beings or in other words we can say that the drugs will be prescribed to patients after the genetics understanding of their diseases. Other factors like lifestyle and environment, which is not similar in different regions can also be considered while prescribing medication in the field of precision medicine.
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In this form of treatment, a disease can be prevented and treated more accurately than the traditional form of treatment, in different groups of people on the basis of their genetic makeup and its profiling. In addition to this remarkable achievement, the diagnosis of various diseases can also be done more accurately even years before their occurrences.
Recognizing the importance of this emerging field of precision medicine President of the United State of America, Barack H. Obama while addressing the state of the Union in January 20, 2015 stated that “tonight I am launching a new precision medicine initiative to bring us closer to curing diseases like cancer and diabetes and to give all of us access to the personalized information we need to keep over-selves and our families healthier”.
The existing system of treatment
In the existing healthcare system of treatment same drugs are being prescribed to different patients suffering from a disease like cancer, diabetes or heart problems but it is not mandatory that these diseases are exactly the same in people belonging to different cultures, region and races. There are chances that the diseases may be different, from smaller to a greater extent in different individuals and the same kind of treatment will not work in different patients.
All this is due to the genes which you have received from your ancestors, the conditions in which you reside and the food you consume are different from other individuals living on this planet and all these factors have an impact on your health and mode of treatment. If all these factors contribute to your health then the drugs used for your treatment will never be same for other individuals having disease/s similar to you because the prevention and treatment of various diseases in future will not be the same as what it is today.
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To overcome all these problems, in future a patients has to pass from several medical test to know that how his/her disease is different from the others and your doctor, will get a detailed report based on your genetic makeup and conditions and will prescribe you a treatment which will suit you and that treatment cannot be used by someone else having similar conditions like you. This magical treatment will have either no or very fewer side effects which will not be less than a miracle for mankind.
Role of Precision medicine in today’s world
Although the role of precision medicine is not common in today’s world but it is likely in near future that this area will completely revolutionalize the traditional form of treatment and a new era will begin in which there would have been almost negligible side effect of drugs and several-fold higher positive impact will be seen on patients health.